Top Ten Proofreading Service in the World: Vappingo

Vappingo top ten proofreading company

UK-based Vappingo is delighted to announce that it has been named among the world’s top ten proofreading service providers in recent research published on Market Watch.

The list, which is based on reputation, trust, market growth, and market opportunities, was compiled by independent research vendor Business Growth Reports, which examined the top proofreading companies in the world.

The ratings were calculated based on an analysis of the global proofreading services market, current and emerging trends, and other vital factors such as competency, reputation, pricing and reporting.

Other providers listed included Wordy, Scribbr, Enago, and Editage.

Vappingo’s inclusion on the report, which spans projections through to 2029, indicates that you rest assured that you are in safe hands when you choose Vappingo as a service provider:

✅ We meet regulatory requirements
✅ We possess a solid market share
✅ Our business is growing throughout the world
✅ We are outperforming many of our competitors
The short version: It means we’re an established name you can trust 🏆

Vappingo: A Top Ten Proofreading Service

Vappingo has provided editing, rewriting, and professional proofreading services to customers in 38+ countries and 4 continents. Many of our editors and proofreaders are members of the Society for Editors and Proofreaders. Our customers really do love us; give our services a try today, and you’ll soon see why.

What is a Dissertation? A Quick and Simple Guide

The majority of degrees will culminate in a large assignment called a dissertation. But exactly what is a dissertation? And what does it involve?

The words dissertation and thesis are often used interchangeably. However, there are some important differences between the two depending on where you are studying. In some areas of the world, the term thesis is reserved for a major assignment that marks the end of a PhD degree. However, in others, a dissertation and a thesis are essentially the same.

For now, we’ll put the term thesis to one side and look at what dissertations are and what work they involve.

What is a Dissertation?

A dissertation is a research paper that is submitted as part of a bachelor’s or master’s degree program. The underlying purpose of the dissertation is to enable students to showcase their knowledge and research skills by answering a research question or exploring a proposal of their choosing.

Educational institutions set dissertations to put students’ independent research abilities and curriculum knowledge to the test. In most cases, the dissertation will play a major role in deciding a student’s final grade.

Although your instructors will normally provide some assistance, the dissertation assignment is mostly a self-managed, independent exercise.

The dissertation will likely be the most time-consuming, challenging, and essential task you will complete at university. It can be a stressful experience that involves months of preparation and hard effort. Hint: If you’re putting in the right amount of effort, Google Scholar will become your best friend (see our guide to essay tips for more useful tools).

However, if you allow yourself to look beyond the pain of long hours of study and research, you’ll recognize that you can gain a lot from writing a dissertation. It will enable you to explore a topic you are passionate about, and if you play your cards right, you may even be able to publish your research findings in a journal article. The best approach is to choose a research topic that piques your curiosity.

Link to dissertation proofreading sales page

Different Types of Dissertations

The type of dissertation you write will differ depending on your degree of study and the topic you are studying.

Studies typically conform to one of two potential forms:

Empirical (Typically Sciences)

This form of thesis entails conducting a small-scale piece of original research. It comprises designing a research project, gathering and analyzing primary data, and presenting the findings logically and systematically.

Non-Empirical (Typically Arts and Humanities)

The simplest way to distinguish a non-empirical dissertation from empirical research is to think of it as a piece of scholarship that scrutinizes the work of others rather than collecting new, primary data directly through a practical research study. When you complete a non-empirical study, you are concerned with the work that others have already conducted. So, what’s the point? Non-empirical studies play an important role because they help to assimilate existing understanding and research findings. Furthermore, by studying the work of others, you can significantly increase your knowledge in your area of specialism.

Non-empirical studies extend beyond merely describing the work that has been done in a certain field. Research questions for library-based studies must be as carefully planned for non-empirical studies as for any other study type. The work may then be placed in a specified context, and a critical assessment of its importance, quality, and contribution to theory and application can be made. You must also analyze and assess the research methodologies utilized by the original researchers, make judgements regarding the validity of the studies, and recommend areas for further study.

The form your dissertation takes will depend on your focus and method of study. The table below presents a broad overview of the basic differences you can expect between different types of dissertations.

The style guide you are expected to follow for your dissertation will depend on the subject matter and area of expertise.

Different Types of Dissertations

Empirical versus non-empirical dissertations. Different types of dissertations.

The Skills You Will Need to Write a Dissertation

Regardless of what form your dissertation takes, you’ll need to demonstrate a set of basic skills.

  • Defining and defining a study topic
  • Developing a research question to guide your study
  • Identifying the most important problems
  • Obtaining essential data and evaluating its credibility and legality
  • Considering both sides of the evidence
  • Arriving at a well-thought-out conclusion
  • Organizing and presenting your study’s results in a critical, compelling, and eloquent manner while adhering to all formatting rules (see our guide to APA formatting for more assistance).
  • Proofreading skills. See our guide to the best dissertation proofreading service if you need more assistance with this.

How Long Should a Dissertation Be?

The word count for a dissertation depends on the level at which you are studying, the academic institution you are attending, and the subject you are studying. However, you can typically expect a dissertation to be around 10,000-12,000 words for undergraduates, 15,000-25,000 words for master’s students, and up to 50,000 words or more for PhD students. According to Harvard’s dissertation guidelines, when writing longer dissertations, organising your work in the form of chapters can be useful.

Link to dissertation proofreading sales page

The Viva

In some countries, you may need to complete an oral examination of your research findings. This is known as a viva (short for viva voca, which translates as “live voice” in Latin). However, generally speaking, only PhD candidates complete vivas.

The viva normally begins with you making a brief presentation of your work to two or three professors, followed by a question-and-answer session that can run up to two hours.

Don’t take shortcuts!

Finally, it should go without saying that it’s not a good idea to pay someone to write your dissertation for you: The dissertation is intended as a practical activity to show off your abilities. However, asking a friend or qualified proofreading service to review your dissertation for spelling, punctuation, and grammatical errors is acceptable.

After you have written your dissertation, you may wish to publish your work in respectable journals. It will not be possible to achieve this if it contains any errors or the standard of English is not satisfactory. You may be surprised to hear that some people publish their work multiple times in different forms. One method of doing this is by rewriting your content to create a new form. You can read more here: how to rewrite your thesis.

Is Academic Proofreading Cheating? Here’s What the Universities Have to Say

Is academic proofreading cheating? This question raises its head regularly. In this article, we take a look at what the universities have to say.

Is academic proofreading cheating?

Academic proofreading and essay editing are often (falsely) associated with cheating.

Yes, there can be a fine line between being helpful and doing someone else’s work on their behalf. However, the best editors know how to refrain from crossing that line to ensure your work is ethical, faithful, and something you can be proud to call your own.

When you start a university or college course, you’ll likely be asked to sign up and agree to a set of rules concerning plagiarism, cheating, and false representation. That’s perfectly normal and to be expected.

But does essay proofreading break these rules?

Is Academic Editing Cheating?

Academic editors are often accused of helping students to cheat. However, this type of accusation is highly offensive to an ethical professional editor.

Proofreading is no different from most jobs: It has an ethical aspect that needs to be respected. For instance, it is considered highly unethical for professors to tell students the answers to exam papers. The majority of professors wouldn’t dream of doing so; however, some do. Does that mean all professors are guilty of helping students to cheat?

Absolutely not. The majority of professors adhere to the ethical expectations associated with their profession. The same is true of professional editors.

So why is academic editing so closely associated with cheating?

One of the problems is that online services, such as Vappingo’s essay editing service, are relatively new. In the past, people were not able to access academic proofreading assistance with such ease.

What did they do instead?

They turned to friends and family members to ask them to proofread and edit their papers for them. Again, the odd student may have benefited from over-zealous editorial assistance from a well-meaning family member. However, the majority of students accessed what we would now perceive to be ethical editing assistance (i.e., help to find errors and recognize issues).

Here at Vappingo, we focus on helping students (and anyone else who orders our services) present their work in the best possible light. In many regards, it is helping to level the playing field.

We encounter many students who have performed fantastic studies in their areas of expertise. However, their writing skills are letting them down. This can particularly be the case with speakers of English as a second language.

Professional editors can help these individuals to ensure that their written papers don’t hold them back.

When is essay proofreading cheating?

See our guide to editing an essay for an in-depth overview of what editing involves. We also have a great article describing the differences between editing and proofreading.

However, we’ve summarized the main points below.

Essay editing or proofreading can be considered cheating if the editor does any of the following:

  • Performs any type of research on behalf of the student
  • Rewrites sections of text because they are factually incorrect
  • Answers the essay prompt on the student’s behalf
  • Significantly alters the content or meaning of the text
  • Changes the main ideas or arguments
  • Adds citations and references
  • Composes analysis for the student
  • Significantly restructures the whole essay

What does ethical essay proofreading involve?

  • Highlighting areas of the discussion that may require fact-checking
  • Commenting on any arguments that do not make sense in the context of the rest of the paper
  • Correcting spelling, grammatical, and punctuation errors
  • Pointing out any material/language that isn’t appropriate; for instance, the use of slang terms or derogatory descriptions of the work of others
  • Identifying areas where the writing isn’t clear
  • Highlighting citation errors or lack of appropriate citation
  • Helping to ensure the paper is formatted in a professional and polished manner
  • Pointing out problems… but not solving them

The differences between ethical essay proofreading and cheating

Difference between proofreading and cheating

Is academic proofreading cheating? What the universities have to say

So, what do the universities have to say?

The majority of universities actively encourage students to ensure their papers are edited and proofread. Here’s what the universities have to say:

“Third-party academic proofreaders are not expected to actively amend existing, or create new, content in draft work; instead, they should support the student by identifying errors and/or making suggestions relating to – but not creating – content. The University considers the role of the proofreader is more akin to that of a mentor rather than a content producer or editor of the work.” – University of Warwick

“A third party can be used to offer advice on: 3.1 spelling and punctuation; 3.2 formatting and sorting footnotes and endnotes for consistency and order; 3.3 ensuring the work follows the conventions of grammar and syntax in written English; 3.4 shortening long sentences and editing long paragraphs; 3.5 changing passives and impersonal usages into actives; 3.6 improving the position of tables and illustrations and the clarity, grammar, spelling, and punctuation of any text in or under tables and illustrations; and 3.7 ensuring consistency of page numbers, headers, and footers” (London School of Economics)

“Checking your writing before submitting it is an important part of the process. It can be challenging to proofread your own writing, and some people prefer to work with a proofreader. However, to avoid collusion, it is your responsibility to ensure that it is still your own work. Your responsibilities If you choose to work with a proofreader (either a professional or a friend), you will need to ensure that their suggestions don’t change your work so much that it’s no longer yours.” (Newcastle University)

“It is acknowledged that certain types of student texts are quite often submitted for academic proofreading to a third party, and that such assistance is at times actively recommended by supervisors. This is particularly the case for doctoral dissertations, which typically aim for publication standard in their presentation.” (Lancaster University)

In fact, the London School of Economics has gone as far as to set up its own proofreading company (Additional services).

Your professors are probably using academic proofreading services themselves

Here is something many students don’t know:

Your professors will use editorial services. Reputable articles will not publish articles if they contain mistakes. For this reason, many authors choose to have their papers edited and proofread by professional editors. In fact, in many cases, it is a mandatory requirement for all submissions to be accompanied by a certificate of editing.

Around 70% of the orders for academic proofreading services we receive here at Vappingo are from PhD candidates and professors. There’s proof that academic proofreading is not cheating if ever you needed it.

How to avoid crossing the line between getting proofreading assistance and cheating

  • Make sure you read your university’s editing and academic proofreading policy in depth. Every university applies a different set of rules. Share these rules with your editor and ensure you operate within the realms of these laws at all times.
  • Include the name of the company that edited your paper in the acknowledgments section of any dissertation or thesis. Better still, request a certificate of editing. If the providing company refuses to provide documentation of this nature, it’s likely something’s amiss.
  • Ensure any proofreading or editing company you choose has significant experience with academic texts. General editors may not be aware of the ethics associated with academic editing.
  • Inform your supervisors that you intend to have your essay proofread by professional academic proofreaders. They will be likely to offer you good advice on what you can and can’t do.
  • Retain responsibility for your own work at all times. Even if you have had your work edited by a professional, you should read through it yourself one final time to ensure there are no loitering errors or areas of misunderstanding.

Can I just ask a friend to help edit or proofread my essay?

Absolutely. If you have a friend or family member on hand who possesses a good working knowledge of written English and academic editing, it can be useful to elicit his or her help. However, you should bear in mind the following:

  • Some academic documents can be particularly lengthy, especially dissertations, manuscripts, and theses. Asking friends to proofread an extensive file places a significant burden on them.
  • You should avoid asking a student who is on the same course to proofread your essay. This could lead to misappropriation claims or version control issues that can potentially lead to academic misconduct.

A final word…

Academic editing and proofreading are not cheating, providing the editor adheres to basic ethical requirements. You are ultimately responsible for ensuring that the proofreader is aware of the standards expected by the university and adheres to them at all times and for revising your own essay.

You own the essay or academic paper. It needs to be your work. As such, you need to check each correction—however minor—and ensure it reflects your voice, intended meaning, and own research.


New Vappingo Platform Launching Soon

Let’s start afresh!

When Vappingo first launched back in 2009, things were a little different.

Blackberries were all the rage, NetFlix was primarily a DVD delivery company, MySpace was still popular, and sixteen-year-old Miley Cyrus was better known for playing Hannah Montana than she was for twerking.

Yep, the world has moved on somewhat since Vappingo’s launch, and it’s time for a fresh new look.

We’re delighted to announce that we will shortly be going live with a completely new underlying application (that’s the software that drives the sections of the website you use to place an order, get in touch with your editor, request revisions, etc.).

You’ll still be able to access our services and Your Vappingo via the main website (; however, once you sign in, things will look a bit different. Hopefully, you will find the user experience intuitive, user-friendly, and an overall upgrade on the Vappingo of old.

Some of the improvements you will benefit from are as follows:

  • Invoices will now be sent instantly upon receipt of your order
  • You will have the ability to delete old orders from the system
  • You will be able to pay using different options, including PayPal, Stripe, Braintree, and offline payment options (including bank transfer)
  • You will have the capability to maintain a wallet balance to make placing orders quicker and easier
  • You will have access to an improved dashboard on which you can place new orders, track order history, get in touch with your editor, download files, view transaction history, and top-up your wallet balance

Due to GDPR requirements and to protect your data, we have opted not to migrate customer accounts from the old platform to the new platform. As such, to access our new system, you will need to create a new account with Vappingo, which typically takes less than 30 seconds.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Why can’t I access my old account? My existing username and password are not working.

You will need to create a new account to access the new Vappingo application. The Vappingo website may look very similar to the old site; however, the underlying functionality has been completely updated. You can use your old username and password to create a new account if you wish.

Why did you not just migrate my account to the new system?

Due to a change in our technology requirements, we have moved on from the fantastic developers who have worked with us over the past 10+ years to access a new set of skills. To operate in accordance with GDPR requirements and our privacy policy, we have not provided the new developers with access to your data. As such, you will need to register a new account to access the site.

How can I track or manage my existing order?

Simply drop us a message at [email protected], and we’ll be happy to help you with any queries about your order.

What if I want to access my old orders?

Simply drop us a message at [email protected], and we’ll be happy to help you dig out any of your previous orders.

If you have any queries, please don’t hesitate to contact us via the usual methods (click here). Or if you’re ready to start a fresh new journey with us right away…

Register a new account now!

How to Peer Edit an Essay: Free Peer Editing Checklist

If you want to peer edit an essay and are looking for some top tips, check out our free peer editing checklist.

How to peer edit an essayIf you’ve got a looming essay deadline, chances are you’ll be happy to just get the dastardly paper finished on time and proofreading and editing won’t feature on your radar.

The idea of editing and proofreading your own essays, let alone asking someone else to help, may be beyond comprehension. In fact, you may think your essay is pretty fantastic already.

If so, you’re deceiving yourself.

Don’t just settle for good. You should be looking for great.

But how do you achieve this?

The majority of students settle for good. That’s enough. It will get them through school.

But good isn’t enough for the top students. They aspire to be great. They aspire to be awesome.

How do YOU become awesome?

Get a friend to help.

To take an essay beyond the draft stage through a polished version, you need a peer editor. It doesn’t necessarily have to be a professional essay editor (although that will deliver the best results); it needs to be someone who will call you out and tell you how it really is.

When you’re looking for someone to peer edit your essay, try and choose someone who you know well and who you can trust to be honest and methodical. You’re not looking for someone who’ll tell you how great your essay is; you’re looking for someone who will provide you with an objective criticism of your paper.

The purpose of the exercise isn’t to tear you down; it’s to make you better.

So, once you’ve found the ideal peer editor, how can you get the most out of the exercise?

Hand them our handy tips and the great peer editing checklist.

If you wish to edit your essay before engaging the help of a peer editor, take a look at our guide to essay editing.

How to Peer Edit an Essay: Top Tips for Success

Peer editors should review an essay with the primary intention of offering advice on how it can be improved. Here are some great tips to make sure you do the task justice.

Ideally, read through the paper at least twice

During the first pass, you’ll familiarize yourself with the content of the essay and the primary arguments that are put forth. During the second pass, you’ll have a chance to readily understand what is being said. If you don’t understand the content after two readings; there’s a problem the writer needs to know about.

Position yourself as the target reader

While you’re in the process of peer editing the essay, take the role of the envisioned reader; i.e., the person who is reading the essay to learn from someone as opposed to being on the hunt for pesky grammatical errors. During the peer editing process, you should be concerned with content, organization, and style. If you focus purely on punctuation and spelling errors, you may not add a significant amount of value. Your role is to help the writer ensure the essay is clear and compelling.

Resist the temptation to fix the issues

Your job as a peer editor is not to take over and correct any issues that you identify; it’s to provide the writer with constructive feedback on how the paper can be improved.

Tell the truth… constructively

If you’re peer editing a friend’s essay, you may not want to hurt his or her feelings by pointing out areas where there is a lack of clarity. However, if you fail to do so, there’s no point in engaging in the process. Resist the urge to say everything is fine and instead focus on how you can help the writer learn someone from the process. Provide constructive feedback that highlights the positive areas of the essay while also pointing out some areas for improvement.

Provide specific details

Don’t provide sweeping statements such as, “I don’t understand your point.” Instead, provide very precise feedback on what exactly you don’t understand and what information may help you understand it better: “Perhaps you could make your point clearer by explaining why…” Take every opportunity to explain why you found something effective or ineffective.

Check the style guide

Universities and colleges typically follow one of six major style guides in academic writing: APA, Harvard, MHRA, MLA, OSCOLA and Oxford. When you write in a consistent manner following a recognised style guide, it is simpler for readers to understand what to anticipate and where to find further information. Effective application of a style in formal writing will distinguish your work visually and ensure you meet the university’s requirements. If you’re using APA, take a look at our guide to APA formatting.

The Three Pillars of Excellent Peer Essay Editing

Three characteristics required to peer edit an essayFree Peer Editing Checklist

First page of the peer editing checklist

Download a free PDF version of our peer editing checklist by clicking on the image above. Here’s the full lowdown on what’s included.

Essay Introduction

  1. Does the essay begin with a clear, attention-grabbing statement or hook?
  2. Are there at least three sentences in the introduction?
  3. Does the writer make his or her intentions clear?
  4. Are you clear about what issue is being addressed in this essay?
  5. Is there a clear thesis statement?

See our guide to how to write an essay introduction for more help.


  1. Are there at least three body paragraphs?
  2. Does each body paragraph contain a clear topic sentence and idea?
  3. Does each body paragraph contain a conclusion statement that leads well to the next body paragraph?


  1. Does the conclusion contain at least three sentences?
  2. Does the conclusion refer back to the thesis statement?

Essay Flow and Coherence

  1. Do the ideas flow logically through the paper and contribute to a building argument?
  2. Have you used transitions correctly?
  3. Is the essay interesting?
  4. Does the analysis presented in the paper support the thesis statement?
  5. Is the sentence structure varied?

Essay Style and Mechanics

  1. Have you appropriately attributed and cited evidence?
  2. Have you cited each reference source according to the relevant style guide? If you’re using APA, take a look at our APA checklist.
  3. Is the paper formatted according to the relevant style guide?
  4. Are the references, tables, and figures formatted according to the relevant style guide?


  1. Have you proofread the paper? For a full proofreading checklist, take a look at our essay proofreading checklist.

Check for:

  • Misspelled words
  • Grammatical mistakes
  • Punctuation errors
  • Run-on Sentences
  • Fragments


So that’s our guide to how to peer edit an essay. Got anything to add? Please leave a comment.



69 Excellent Reasons Why Proofreading is Important

1) Because most people don’t actually know what Grandma tastes like

Slogan reads: "tastes like grandma"

2) Because cows can’t read

Reads: cows please close gate
Is it that the cows are smart or that the ranchers aren’t?

3) Because the sales staff may not be happy to deliver the value-added services

Reads: buy bed free 1 night stand
Sounds like a great offer.

4) Because not everyone can stand up for what they believe in

Poster shows wheelchair-bound adult and the slogan "men standing up"

5) Because people tend to look for more appealing ice cream flavors


Reads: "Butt.Finger Blast"
Sounds delicious

6) Because failing to proofread can have tradegic tragic consequences

Tattoo reads "tradgey"

7) Because stating the obvious won’t win you a Pulitzer

Stating the obvious headline says, "Diana was still alive hours before she died"

8) Because your kids will thank you for it

Sign reads: "Kidsexchange" instead of Kid's exchange9) Because you don’t want to be regretting that extra consonant for the rest of your life

The word summer is spelt incorrectly10) Because your new arrival is much more than acute

Funny facebook mistake, "My Angel"

11) Because claiming to be good at something doesn’t necessarily mean it’s true

Translation gone very wrong
Source: SMB Savings

12) Because you don’t want to offend Tiger

Tiger woods plays with own balls

13) Because you don’t want to offend Obama

Sign reads: "proofread unless you really don't give a tuck"

14) Because the grammar Nazis are lying in wait

Are you sure that college isn't necessary?
15) Because you don’t want to attract the wrong type of clientele

Bad slogan reads: "the best hand job in the Bronx"

16) Because without the unions she’d be teaching P.E.

17) Because some people just want to pee without the extras thrown in

Sign for male toilet is mistranslated

18) Because not everyone’s dangerous

Sign reads: "because you are dangerous you must not enter"

19) Because you might end up giving viewers more than they anticipated

Reads: Catch VD
Do fans need to get themselves checked out?

20) Because if you want to share enlightening facts about Nelson Mandela, you really ought to ensure they are accurate

Nelson Mandela proofreading mistake

21) Because a missing punctuation mark can completely change your bus journey

Sign mistakenly uses a rude word

22) Because one letter can mean the difference between looking cool and a long stretch in San Quentin

Picture that shows the difference between rapper and raper23) Because some words have more than one meaning

Bad translation misuses alternative word for chicken
Source: Turkish Tefl

24) Because James should be remembered for much more than being a geometric term

Sign reads "angle" instead of "angel"

25) Because it’s important to get every day off to the right start

26) Because not everyone wants to know about your embarrassing medical problem

We have worms
Are these for general consumption, or are they referring to an ongoing medical condition?

27) Because there’s always a smart aleck about

Flyer reads: "we are closed due to short staff."

28) Because stories about crazy animal fetishes don’t make for a great morning read

Reads: Women beats off shark

29) Because you don’t want to be accused of discrimination

Reads: black baby cot for sale
A comma between the words “black” and “baby” may have avoided the possibility of the poster being branded racist… or dumb

30) Because there are better ways to let your son know he was adopted

Reads: From "Mom"
Was this guy adopted?

31) Because contradictions cause confusion

Sign reads: "Do not enter. Entrance only."

32) Because girls don’t actually like the smell of colon

User claims that spelling mistakes on facebook don't make any difference

33) Because good old-fashioned mayonnaise would suffice

Reads: Turkey w/cum

34) Because someone may take your instructions literally

A milk carton is stuck next to a flyer that says, "do not place milk cartons on fridge door."

35) Because you’re feeding the grammar trolls

Facebook spelling mistakes are not my fault

36) Because you can make yourself look pretty stupid

The word "appreciation" is spelled incorrectly37) Because chickens aren’t all that good at walking dogs

Why we need proofreaders
38) Because there really is a difference between then and than

The difference between then and than is important39) Because your message of compassion could be misinterpreted

Sign Reads: "don't let worries kill you let the church help"
40) Because your friends are lying in wait to call you out

Facebook status needs spelling check

41) Because the punishment needs to fit the crime

Proofreading fail42) Because people don’t like a bragger

Reads: B.J. Champion

43) Because you could undermine your entire marketing proposition

Oh the irony44) Because a misspelled word can fundamentally transform the job specification

Proofreader needed for spelling mistake

45) Because a placement issue could turn into a public relations crisis

Pepsi jiz poster proofreading mistake
46) Because you may inadvertently incite homicide

Freshly ground black people typo

47) Because your daughter should be remembered for more than having a face like a phallus

Genital face newspaper mistake

48) Because the way you welcome visitors does matter

Because how you welcome guests matters. Proofreading mistake on sign.

49) Because some abbreviations have unfortunate consequences

Wrigley's extra fresh what?
But will it freshen my breath?

50) Because Brian’s development is his own business

Brian is evolving

51) Because if you’re going to claim to be perfect, you really should make sure you are

52) Because parking illegally will not be fineProofreading error reads: "Illegal cars will be fine."

53) Because the animals deserve a chance at lifeBurying people's animals in bury

54) Because if you’re going to name your brand after a punctuation mark, you really should know how to use itApostrophe mistake on an advert

55) Because you can’t beat the real thing

56) Because sometimes there’s just no excuse

Business sign grammar and spelling57) Because one misplaced letter can make ALL the difference

Newspaper error

58) Because sheeps don’t go with everythingChips with everything

59) Because font selection also matters

esurance advertising fail

60) Because homonyms can confuse the uneducated

Heal or heel?61) Because if you’re going to brag about what a great writer you are, you need to write well

Donald Trump pour pore error62) Because mistakes can be VERY expensive

Yellow pages proofreading error

Source: moreniche

63) Because tuna doesn’t care

Tunashamed bumper sticker funny64) Because there is such a thing as bad publicity

maria tash mistake65) Because details matters

Details matter spelling mistake66) Because your way of spelling things may get you a reputation

Proofreading error my way of spelling things67) Because you can never quite trust autocorrect

Typo on autocorrect Prius68) Because you can never quite trust Microsoft Word

Grammar errors not highlighted by grammar software
69) And because you can never quite trust grammar checking software

Grammarly error oneGrammarly error two

7 Fabulous Memes That Prove Proofreading Isn’t Easy

Why proof-reading is so difficult

Proofreading tools, spellcheckers, and grammar software are widely available these days, so typos and grammar errors should well and truly be a thing of the past, right?


Unfortunately, while grammar software is beneficial, it is not yet sophisticated enough to spot all the mistakes in a written document. And it’s likely to be a long time until it is.

But we’re not exactly in a position to judge. Humans are also fundamentally flawed; especially when it comes to proofreading something we have written ourselves.


Because our brains play tricks on us, often to the extent that we simply can not see the mistakes that may be glaringly obvious to expert proofreaders.

Don’t believe me? Take a look at the following:

Text reads: "can you spot the mistake?"

Pretty much everyone who uses social media on a regular basis will have seen this meme at some point or another.

This is a prime example of your brain playing tricks on you. Two things are happening here:

  1. The numbers come first and are written in a light color on a darker background instead of the dark on light we have come to expect. These features tell our brains that the numbers are more important than the sentence that appears below them. As such, we focus on the numbers, not the text.
  2. The brain’s capacity for auto-correction causes us to read what we expect to be there as opposed to what is actually there. This is great when you want to read instructions really quickly, but it is not so great if you’re proofreading a critical document.

Read more: 69 reasons why proofreading is important.

Here’s another classic example:

Simple proofreading trickDid you find the mistake straight away?

Or did you have to look twice?

Can’t see it? Take a look at this one:

Sign reads: "Don't take anything for for granted"Are you taking things for granted?

Still struggling to find the mistakes?

How about a little help:

Hard to proofread the repetition of the word the

Nine out of ten people won’t spot the errors when they look at these memes.

This is not because they’re idiots or their English skills are lacking. Is it, again, because their brains have done an excellent job of tricking them.

In fact, if you regularly make these types of mistake, you should be giving yourself a big pat on the back for your superior brain power.

In an article that was published in Wired, a proofreading expert from the University of Sheffield explained how it is our intelligence, not our ignorance, that allows typos to slip through: “As with all high-level tasks, your brain generalizes simple, component parts (like turning letters into words and words into sentences) so it can focus on more complex tasks (like combining sentences into complex ideas),” he assured us.

When your brain starts to generalize sentences, you don’t actually see what’s written on the page. You are no longer reading; you are filling in gaps. And that’s how mistakes are made.

Qualified proofreaders know how to make sure the brain is in reading mode, not recognition mode. Take a look at these essay proofreading tips for some great ideas about how you can achieve this.

The difficulties you may encounter when attempting to self-edit don’t stop there.

Take a look at this:

Example of the stoop effectCan you read the words correctly?

Again, most people will struggle with this seemingly simple task and take much longer to read the words than they would normally.

You have the Stroop effect to thank for that.

The Stroop effect perfectly demonstrates how easy it is for our brains to get confused when reading.

So, do qualified proofreaders struggle with this problem? Apparently not.

According to research involving 12 professional proofreaders and 12 control subjects, during which the participants were tested on a Stroop color-word task, the control subjects exhibited more Stroop interference than the proofreaders. These results indicate that proofreading practice really does pay off.

The following illusion highlights why typos and spelling mistakes are so hard to catch by people who have not acquired solid proofreading skills.

Simple task that explains why spelling mistakes are often missed

If you really do insist on proofreading your own writing, there’s a high chance you will be caught out by this type of thing.

Essentially, humans eventually stop being able to spot typos in their own writing. The brain enters into recognition mode, and the errors become hidden in the larger sentence.

So what makes proofreaders so special?

In addition to having advanced knowledge and understanding of English conventions and grammar rules, proofreaders haven’t seen your work before. As such, they’re reading the text for the first time and are much more likely to detect the errors you missed.

Here’s one final example for you.

How many Fs appear in the following sentence?

Proofreading trick. Count the number of FsThis is easy, right?

A surprisingly high number of people get it wrong.

Did you count six? If not, how did you miss so many fs?

There are two great explanations for this fascinating phenomenon:

  1. It’s highly likely that you mentally read the sentence. According to Mighty Optical Illusions, when people read sentences in their heads, they often subconsciously ignore the word “of” because it doesn’t add any massive value to the meaning of the sentence as a whole.
  2. A different explanation is offered by Sharp Brains. They attribute people’s failure to count the fs accurately to the fact that people think of the f in the word “of” as a “V” sound. As such, their brains ignore the actual spelling and, hence, fail to count all the fs, even if they read the sentence over several times.

Still think proofreading is easy?

The truth is that it is practically impossible to spot all the errors in your own writing. You quite simply can’t trust your own eyes and brain.

That’s what Vappingo is here for. Our online proofreaders will find all the mistakes for you, so you can publish with confidence.

Editing and Proofreading Revision Service

Reads: "A guide to revision requests for editing services."

Vappingo’s editing and proofreading services include free revisions. This is a courtesy service that is designed to help you work with your editor or proofreader to refine any changes he or she has made to your original document.

Sometimes, our clients become confused about what constitutes a valid revision request according to our policy. To help, we have created a useful infographic that highlights the dos and don’ts of working with your editor to perfect your writing.

Here’s a quick overview of the things you need to know before requesting a revision to the edited file.

  1. Revision requests go back into the system and will be dealt with by your editor at the earliest opportunity. Please provide your editor will sufficient time to attend to your needs and bear in mind that there may be a queue of orders in the system ahead of your revision request. You can generally expect a revision request to be completed within 12-24 hours.
  2. The revision request service is provided to give you a chance to work with your editor on the changes he or she suggested. It is strictly limited to the content that was included in the original order. If you have made changes to the file that were not included in the paper you originally submitted for editing or proofreading, you will need to place a new order for those changes.
  3. Our editors go to every effort to highlight areas of your writing that do not quite make sense, point out where you have failed to provide important and relevant information, and give you constructive feedback on how your document can be improved. If you act on that advice and make major changes to the file, these changes will need to be submitted as a new order because they were not included in the original word count.

If you’re looking for specific help on revising your own work, take a look at our guide to revising an essay.

Editing and Proofreading Service Revision Process

Guide to Vappingo's free revision service

If you require any further information, please take a look at our terms and conditions.


Proofreading Quiz: What’s Your Harry Potter Proofreading Personality?

Proofreading experts come in all shapes and sizes… and we don’t just mean waistline! While some proofreaders stick rigidly to the English conventions of days gone by, others take a more liberal approach to their art and recognize that the English language is always evolving and adapting to the needs of its users. But what type of proofreader are you?

To share this quiz with your readers, embed this in your blog post by pasting the following HTML snippet into your web editor:

Please attribute this content to Vappingo proofreading

Copyediting Services Explained: This is What the Professionals Do

The strongest desire... example of copyeditingCopyediting services encompass many different types of editorial and proofreading services.  A simple search on the Internet will reveal a wide variety of editing and proofreading services, and it appears that there is no universally accepted definition of the editing processes available.  However, if you are considering hiring the services of a professional proofreader or editor, there are three general types of editing that you need to be aware of when determining which copyediting services will be the most suitable for your manuscript needs.  Here’s an overview of the types of editing you may come across.


Proofreading is the most basic form of copyediting service, and the majority of professional editors will offer this at a lower price than their other editing services.  A proofreader’s main role is to meticulously read through your document and ensure that it doesn’t contain any spelling, grammatical or consistency errors.  As a rule, proofreaders will not rearrange the sentence structure, or reorder any problematic paragraphs.  Proofreading is suitable for you if you are confident in your English language ability and feel that you do not require any assistance with the sentence structure or content of the manuscript or document.  Using a proofreader is extremely important because, despite your best efforts, it is very difficult to thoroughly check a document for errors yourself.  Expert proofreaders will go through each and every word and ensure that your text is perfect.

Line Editing

Line editing is one step up from proofreading.  When line editing, proofreaders will conduct a more detailed review of your document and will literally go through the manuscript line by line.  A good proofreader will read a manuscript several times when they are engaged in the line editing process, and they will meticulously check that the document is consistent, that there are no plot discrepancies and that it contains accurate spelling and grammar.  Line editors use a very specific markup process when line editing and many line editors will use a series of codes, or proofreading symbols, to denote the changes to the text that are required.

In addition to checking basic spelling and grammar, line editing also involves editing for style and consistency.  Some types of documents, such as legal manuscripts, dissertations, educational publications, etc. will need to follow certain writing conventions.  In these cases, editors will consult a style guide to ensure that the conventions are followed accurately and that citations, quotations, and footnotes are properly formatted.  Once line editors have reviewed a manuscript a couple of times, they will quite often revisit it to examine the formatting.  This part of the process will be especially important if different editors and proofreaders have been used during the process.  Some editors may also go one step further when providing copyediting services and will double-check that the facts presented in certain parts of the document are correct and up to date.

Substantive Editing

The final type of copyediting services editors offer is substantive editing, which is even more detailed than line editing.  Substantive editing is also known as developmental editing or comprehensive editing and—depending on the quality of the written material—can involve much more work on behalf of the editor.  Substantive editing will often involve the editor restructuring, rewriting or paraphrasing elements of the manuscript.  They will look at the document as a holistic piece and will ensure that it is coherent throughout and fits together as it should.  They will add information, where necessary, and will delete anything that they feel is unsuitable or detracts from the message of the document.  During the substantive editing process, the editor may work closely with the writer to discuss issues with the document and to negotiate a new structure or format.  In some extreme cases, they may rewrite the entire document.

Online Copyediting Services

Vappingo offers both editing and proofreading services. In the case of editing, we recognize that there is a considerable overlap between substantive editing and line editing and, for this reason, we operate a model that is a combination of both processes.  Our editors will generally start the editing process with a substantive pass through the entire manuscript.  They will check the overall structure of the document, correct any immediately obvious sentence issues and ensure that the manuscript flows logically.  They will then revisit the editing process and, on the second pass, will perform further copyediting while ensuring that references, citations, and quotations are correct.  Finally, they will proofread the document in order to identify any mistakes they have missed through pass one and two.

Here at Vappingo we do not use a special markup language on a customer’s manuscript or dissertation unless they specifically request it.  Instead, we mark the changes we have made by activating the Track Changes tool in Word.  We then send our customers two versions of their document: a version that includes all the changes and editor comments, and a version in the final form, with all such changes accepted.